© 2021 MJH Life Sciences and AJMC. All rights reserved.
© 2021 MJH Life Sciences™ and Clinical Care Targeted Communications, LLC. All rights reserved.
Up to 10% of the US adult population will experience chronic insomnia, with women and elderly individuals at particularly high risk. Cognitive behavioral therapy is the core treatment for insomnia. When cognitive behavioral therapy is not enough, medications can help patients overcome the barriers and learned behaviors that prevent a good night’s sleep. Benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepine GABA-A receptor agonists are the traditional medications used to treat insomnia. More recently, orexin inhibitors have been introduced that may have fewer adverse effects, including the development of dependence. To date, only suvorexant and lemborexant have been approved for the treatment of insomnia. However, several other agents are in later stages of development. This article will review the available pharmacotherapeutic options for treating insomnia.
Am J Manag Care. 2020;26:S85-S90. https://doi.org/10.37765/ajmc.2020.43007Introduction
Insomnia is a condition of unsatisfactory sleep in terms of sleep onset, sleep maintenance, or early waking.1-5 It impairs daytime well-being and subjective abilities and functioning. Insomnia is pervasive in the United States and other Western societies. Insomnia can occur over either a short period of time (acute) or a longer period (chronic). This article will discuss chronic insomnia primarily.
Chronic insomnia is associated with numerous adverse effects (AEs) on a person’s well-being, including fatigue, poor cognitive function, mood disturbance, and distress or interference with personal functioning.1-7 Older adults more often have difficulty maintaining sleep (wake time after sleep onset [WASO]), whereas younger adults report more difficulty falling asleep (sleep onset latency [SOL]).
Guideline Recommendations for the Treatment of Insomnia
Insomnia can be treated with pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches, individually or in combination. Several groups have published guidelines for the management of insomnia, including:
The diagnosis of insomnia is usually based on patient self-reporting. Insomnia may be a condition in and of itself or a symptom of another underlying medical or behavioral condition.1-5 The patient evaluation of comorbid conditions should exclude:
Many individuals may experience insomnia and comorbid disorder(s) concurrently. For instance, insomnia may lead to anxiety about insomnia, which could further exacerbate sleep fragmentation. Questionnaires, at-home sleep logs, and actigraphy can all be helpful tools for the assessment of insomnia in the absence of other apparent etiologies.
The guidelines vary in their recommendations of specific pharmacologic treatments. However, they follow a general approach1-5,8:
The ACP does not recommend specific pharmacotherapy, but rather that clinicians use a shared decision-making approach when determining whether to add pharmacotherapy in adults with chronic insomnia disorder in whom cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) alone was unsuccessful.2
The AASM recommends the following pharmacotherapies1:
The AASM recommends against using trazodone, tiagabine, diphenhydramine, melatonin, tryptophan, or valerian for either sleep-onset or sleep-maintenance insomnia.1
The AHRQ does not make recommendations but notes the following from a systematic review of 169 randomized controlled trials and 12 observational studies3:
Current Treatment Options
The goals of treatment are to improve sleep quality and related poor daytime functioning while reducing distress and anxiety related to sleep fragmentation.2,8 Patients should be reevaluated at least every 6 months. Management is highly personalized, and treatments may need to be switched and/or combined. Successive treatment failures may suggest an unrecognized underlying comorbidity.
Nonpharmacologic interventions may help many individuals with insomnia, but many people will not overcome their insomnia without assistance from medications. Withdrawal from CBTI is as high as 40% before midtreatment.9 Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are not recommended by the AASM due to lack of efficacy and safety data.1 The choice of prescription medication should be based on treatment goals and patient-specific characteristics.
Measures of Sleep Function/Dysfunction
Specific outcomes for sleep research generally include measures of WASO, sleep latency, number of awakenings, TST, and sleep efficiency.8 People with insomnia have average sleep latency and WASO greater than 30 minutes, sleep efficiency less than 85%, and/or TST shorter than 6.5 hours.8 Psychological measures of sleep include patient-reported outcomes and psychological assessment scales that describe sleep-related psychological distress, daytime function, quality of life, and sleep quality.
A patient’s first attempt to control insomnia often involves the use of OTC medications. Alcohol is commonly used but its effects are of short duration, and it can adversely affect sleep quality.10 The use of alcohol can disrupt sleep homeostasis and carries the potential for abuse and dependency.11 Persons with alcohol use disorder may experience profound insomnia as a result of chronic, excessive alcohol consumption.
The most common antihistamines in OTC products are diphenhydramine and doxylamine.12 With antihistamines, the possibility exists for next-day sedating effects and some individuals develop paradoxical reactions such as agitation and anxiety. Antihistamines are associated with dry mouth, blurred vision, increased heart rate, difficulty urinating, memory problems, and confusion. According to the American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria, antihistamines should be avoided in elderly patients due to the increased risk of cognitive impairment, falls, and motor vehicle accidents.1,13 Diphenhydramine inhibits cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), which can cause drug interactions with a diverse collection of medications.14
Many herbal preparations and supplements for insomnia are available on the market, although most lack sufficient evidence demonstrating a sleep benefit.15 Herbal preparations carry a risk of possible unknown drug interactions as well as of contamination from nonstandardized production and quality control, which may result in variable concentrations of active ingredients among brands and lots.16,17 Valerian is a common herbal sleep aid for chronic insomnia.18 Its effects are gradual, and abrupt discontinuation is associated with withdrawal symptoms similar to those caused by benzodiazepines.19 Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland in response to circadian signaling.20 The rise in melatonin level facilitates sleep onset, and study results have shown a small effect on sleep latency but not on other sleep measures.21,22
The medications that are available specifically for treatment of insomnia target receptors that contribute to the regulation of the sleep and wake cycle: γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A), melatonin, histamine, and orexin/hypocretin receptors.9,12,23 With the exceptions of doxepin and ramelteon, most approved medications for insomnia are Schedule IV controlled substances, owing to the potential for abuse.
Many people with insomnia experience it for extended periods of time, often for more than 1 year. In studies of up to 12 months in length in elderly patients, doxepin, eszopiclone, ramelteon, suvorexant, zaleplon, and zolpidem retained their efficacy without tolerance, abuse, withdrawal effects, or any new AEs developing.24
The GABA-A receptor is a chloride ion channel widespread in the central nervous system (CNS). When activated, GABA-A allows passage of chloride ions into the cell, resulting in hyperpolarization and decreased likelihood of action potential transmission. Facilitation of GABA-A results in sedative, anxiolytic, muscle-relaxant, and hypnotic effects.
Benzodiazepines are GABA-A agonists indicated for people with difficulty with sleep onset, difficulty with sleep onset and sleep maintenance, or middle-of-the-night awakenings with difficulty returning to sleep. Benzodiazepines are associated with rapid development of tolerance as well as risk of abuse or dependency, cognitive impairment, and rebound insomnia after discontinuation.25 Tolerance can lead to dose escalation, and use of benzodiazepines for as little as 3 to 4 weeks is associated with withdrawal symptoms if stopped abruptly. This drug class is not recommended for use in elderly patients as listed by Beers Criteria.18,26 In spite of this, benzodiazepines are used frequently in older patients, and up to one-third of elderly patients who take benzodiazepines use them on a long-term basis.18 Long-term use is associated with ataxia, sedation, greater risk of falls and fractures, cognitive decline, and dependency. An increased risk of sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death is associated with combined use of benzodiazepines and opioids.27
Nonbenzodiazepine GABA-A agonists (“Z-drugs” or “nonbenzodiazepines”) are effective for people with sleep-onset and sleep-maintenance difficulties, and they are among the drugs most commonly prescribed for insomnia. Eszopiclone is useful in managing insomnia with comorbid depression or generalized anxiety disorder. However, nonbenzodiazepines are not considered to be “safer” than benzodiazepines as both have a risk of tolerance, daytime somnolence, anterograde amnesia, slowness of mental processes and body movements, and, when combined with other sedative drugs (eg, opioids), overdose.28 Complex behaviors, such as sleep driving, sleep eating, and sleep walking, have been reported by persons using nonbenzodiazepines. Nonbenzodiazepines have adverse effects similar to benzodiazepines (eg, falls, fractures, delirium) and as a result are also included in the Beers Criteria list of drugs that should be avoided in elderly patients.18,26 Nonbenzodiazepine use in elderly patients offers minimal improvement in sleep latency and duration and is associated with increased hospitalization as well as emergency department visits.
Histamine in the CNS potently promotes wakefulness. Doxepin, at doses of 25 mg to 300 mg, is a tricyclic antidepressant with serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition as well as antihistamine and anticholinergic activity. At low doses (3-6 mg), it is a pure H1 receptor antagonist. Doxepin should not be coadministered with monoamine oxidase inhibitors.29,30
Trazodone does not carry an indication for insomnia but has been used in patients with primary or secondary insomnia at doses of 50 mg to 100 mg. It is a serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor that also has moderate antihistamine and low anticholinergic activity. In a systematic review, trazodone was effective in decreasing sleep latency and increasing sleep duration and quality of sleep. The most common adverse effects of trazodone were drowsiness, headache, and orthostatic hypotension. Postural hypotension is a concern, particularly in elderly patients who are at risk of falls and injury.29,31
Melatonin receptor agonist
Ramelteon is a melatonin receptor agonist, targeting melatonin receptors 1 and 2 preferentially over receptor 3. Melatonin acts in the hypothalamus, causing sedation, and regulates sleep-wake cycles. Ramelteon marginally reduces sleep latency but does not increase TST. Melatonin receptor agonists carry a low risk of dependency and would be appropriate in patients with substance use disorders.5 High-fat meals can delay absorption, and the potential for drug interactions is moderately high.
Orexin Receptor Antagonists
The orexin/hypocretin receptor is central to the regulation of sleep-wake cycles, arousal, and appetite.32 A medication that acts as an antagonist to the orexin receptor could induce sleepiness and sustain longer periods of sleep, which could be helpful for the treatment of insomnia.33
Suvorexant is a dual-orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) that was approved in 2014 for the treatment of insomnia. Suvorexant suppresses the wake drive by blocking both the orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptors. Compared with another DORA, almorexant, suvorexant demonstrated a more balanced sleep architecture profile due to its promotion of both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep, whereas almorexant primarily increases REM sleep. Suvorexant has been shown to increase time spent in each stage of sleep and to increase TST.33
Suvorexant was studied in 3 clinical trials in patients with insomnia characterized by difficulties with sleep onset and sleep maintenance. In study 1 and study 2, suvorexant was superior to placebo for sleep latency, assessed objectively by polysomnography and subjectively by patient estimation. Suvorexant was also superior to placebo for sleep maintenance, assessed objectively by polysomnography and subjectively as patient-estimated TST.
In a 1-month crossover study (study 3), adults (aged 18-64 years) were treated with placebo and suvorexant. Suvorexant 10 mg and 20 mg were superior to placebo for sleep latency and sleep maintenance, assessed objectively by polysomnography. Higher doses of suvorexant were found to have similar efficacy to lower doses but were associated with significantly higher incidence of AEs.
In clinical trials, the most common AE (reported in ≥5% of patients treated with suvorexant and at least twice the placebo rate) in patients with insomnia treated with suvorexant 15 mg or 20 mg was somnolence (suvorexant 7% vs placebo 3%). The AE profile in elderly patients was generally consistent with that in nonelderly patients. The discontinuation rate due to AEs for patients treated with suvorexant 15 mg or 20 mg was 3% compared with 5% for placebo.
Individuals with narcolepsy lack most or all orexin receptors in the hypothalamus and should not receive suvorexant. Before increasing the dose, it should be considered that obese patients and women have reduced clearance compared with leaner people and men.34
Lemborexant is a DORA that was approved in late December 2019 for the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulties with sleep onset and/or sleep maintenance in adults.35,36 Lemborexant has a half-life of approximately 17 to 19 hours; it decreases wakefulness and promotes non-REM sleep with no effect on REM sleep.33 Lemborexant was studied in the SUNRISE 1 and SUNRISE 2 trials.37 In the SUNRISE studies, lemborexant significantly improved objective and subjective measures of sleep onset and sleep maintenance compared with placebo. These were 1-month and 6-month, placebo-controlled trials, respectively, with the primary end point of sleep latency and secondary end points of sleep efficiency and WASO. Comparator arms were 10 mg and 5 mg lemborexant versus placebo. Both trials achieved their primary end point.
The most common AE (reported in ≥5% of patients treated with lemborexant and at least twice the rate of placebo) in both SUNRISE 1 and SUNRISE 2 was somnolence (lemborexant 10 mg, 10%; lemborexant 5 mg, 7%; placebo, 1%).38 Treatment discontinuation was highest in the 10-mg lemborexant group compared with the other groups (8.3%, 4.1%, and 3.8%, respectively).39 No respiratory concerns were noted in the trials. Patients with mild OSA did not experience worsening sleep apnea, as measured by changes in apnea-hypopnea index or peripheral oxygen saturation.40
Other Orexin Inhibitors in Phase 3 Clinical Trials
Daridorexant (nemorexant) is a DORA with a half-life of approximately 6 hours. Phase 2 study results have shown a dose-dependent effect on reducing WASO and latency to sleep onset. The most common AEs reported were headache, somnolence, diarrhea, and fatigue.41,42
Unlike other orexin inhibitors that antagonize both orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptors, seltorexant is a selective orexin-2 receptor antagonist. This unique mechanism of action may offer hypnotic effects while preserving normal sleep architecture and reduced risk for cataplexy. Seltorexin has a half-life of 2 to 3 hours.43 In its phase 2 clinical trials, seltorexant was shown to improve sleep induction and prolong sleep duration. It is also being studied for the treatment of hyperarousal-related insomnia in patients with depression. The most common AEs reported were headache, dizziness, and somnolence.44-46
Pharmacologic Treatment Failure
A specific insomnia medication will not be effective for everyone, so a personalized approach to management is needed.4,8 Comorbid conditions should be suspected in patients who repeatedly have limited or only transient improvements with medication and CBT. Polypharmacy is a significant concern, particularly in elderly patients. In the ambulatory setting, approximately one-third to two-thirds of elderly patients use 5 or more daily prescription medications, in addition to about half using OTC medications and dietary supplements.47 In the nursing home setting, up to 40% of residents are using 9 or more daily medications. Polypharmacy is associated with increased healthcare costs and increased risk of AEs (eg, drug interactions, falls, cognitive impairment). Pharmacists can be instrumental in reducing polypharmacy.48
Pharmacotherapy for Specific Populations
As people age, sleep timing advances (ie, earlier bedtimes and rise times), and falling asleep becomes more difficult.18,24 Elderly people may have a disrupted sleep architecture, with less REM sleep and more stage I and stage II non-REM sleep. They frequently have comorbidities and reduced cognitive function. Older adults often have insomnia, and many medications are not suitable for use in this population. CBT is the first choice of treatment but may require longer periods of time to have an effect. Medication choice should be tailored to the patient’s needs18,24:
Chronic insomnia is a prevalent and difficult-to-treat condition.1 Difficulty falling asleep or maintaining sleep leads to daytime struggles, such as fatigue, mood disturbances, and decreased ability and desire to work or socialize. Women and elderly patients are at particular risk of chronic insomnia. Treatment should be tailored to the individual needs of the patient, and patients may need to switch medications to find the one that alleviates their symptoms best. Guidelines are discordant and vague, which is likely a reflection of the individual nature of insomnia and the difficulty of developing a one-size-fits-all algorithm.1-3,8
Author affiliation: Mei T. Liu, PharmD, BCPP, is a clinical assistant professor, Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ; and a clinical psychiatric pharmacist, Department of Pharmacy, Penn Medicine Princeton House Behavioral Health, Princeton, NJ.
Funding source: This activity is supported by an educational grant from Eisai.
Author disclosure: Dr Liu has no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
Authorship information: Substantial contributions to the intellectual content including concept and design, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of the manuscript, and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content.
Address correspondence to: email@example.com.
Medical writing and editorial support provided by: David Modrak, PhD, and Patrick Stone.
1. Sateia MJ, Buysse DJ, Krystal AD, Neubauer DN, Heald JL. Clinical practice guideline for the pharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia in adults: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(2):307-349. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.6470.
2. Qaseem A, Kansagara D, Forciea MA, Cooke M, Denberg TD; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Management of chronic insomnia disorder in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(2):125-133. doi: 10.7326/M15-2175.
3. Management of insomnia disorder in adults: current state of the evidence. Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality website. effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/products/insomnia/clinician. Published August 1, 2017. Accessed November 24, 2019.
4. Sparks A, Cohen A, Arnold B, et al. Insomnia guideline. Kaiser Permanente Foundation website. wa.kaiserpermanente.org/static/pdf/public/guidelines/insomnia.pdf. Published January 2019. Accessed November 24, 2019.
5. Wilson S, Anderson K, Baldwin D, et al. British Association for Psychopharmacology consensus statement on evidence-based treatment of insomnia, parasomnias and circadian rhythm disorders: an update. J Psychopharmacol. 2019;33(8):923-947. doi: 10.1177/0269881119855343.
6. Saddichha S. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic insomnia. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2010;13(2):94-102. doi: 10.4103/0972-2327.64628.
7. Ohayon MM. Observation of the natural evolution of insomnia in the American general population cohort. Sleep Med Clin. 2009;4(1):87-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jsmc.2008.12.002.
8. Schutte-Rodin S, Broch L, Buysse D, Dorsey C, Sateia M. Clinical guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic insomnia in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4(5):487-504.
9. Matthews EE, Arnedt JT, McCarthy MS, Cuddihy LJ, Aloia MS. Adherence to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a systematic review. Sleep Med Rev. 2013;17(6):453-464. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2013.01.001.
10. Thakkar MM, Sharma R, Sahota P. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis. Alcohol. 2015;49(4):299-310. doi: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2014.07.019.
11. Chakravorty S, Vandrey RG, He S, Stein MD. Sleep management among patients with substance use disorders. Med Clin North Am. 2018;102(4):733-743. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2018.02.012.
12. Neubauer DN, Pandi-Perumal SR, Spence DW, Buttoo K, Monti JM. Pharmacotherapy of insomnia. J Cent Nerv Syst Dis. 2018;10:1179573518770672. doi: 10.1177/1179573518770672.
13. 2019 American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. American Geriatrics Society 2019 Updated AGS Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019;67(4):674-694. doi: 10.1111/jgs.15767.
14. Cytochrome P450 2D6 known drug interaction chart. Mayo Clinic website. mayocliniclabs.com/it-mmfiles/Cytochrome_P450_2D6_Known_Drug_Interaction_Chart.pdf. Reviewed August 2014. Accessed December 28, 2019.
15. Leach MJ, Page AT. Herbal medicine for insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2015;24:1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2014.12.003.
16. Tian S. Advantages and disadvantages of herbal medicine. HealthGuidance website. healthguidance.org/entry/12415/1/Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-Herbal-Medicine.html. Updated December 11, 2019. Accessed February 25, 2020.
17. Kunle OF, Egharevba HO, Ahmadu PO. Standardization of herbal medicines – a review. Biodivers Conserv. 2012;4(3):101-112. doi: 10.5897/IJBC11.163.
18. Abad VC, Guilleminault C. Insomnia in elderly patients: recommendations for pharmacological management. Drugs Aging. 2018;35(9):791-817. doi: 10.1007/s40266-018-0569-8.
19. Spiguel E, Gubili J. Use of valerian to relieve anxiety in patients with cancer. ASCO Post website. ascopost.com/issues/january-25-2019/use-of-valerian-to-relieve-anxiety-in-patients-with-cancer. Published January 25, 2019. Accessed February 19, 2020.
20. Zee PC, Manthena P. The brain’s master circadian clock: implications and opportunities for therapy of sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev. 2007;11(1):59-70. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2006.06.001.
21. Buysse DJ. Insomnia. JAMA. 2013;309(7):706-716. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.193.
22. Buscemi N, Vandermeer B, Hooton N, et al. The efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin
for primary sleep disorders. a meta-analysis. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20(12):1151-1158. doi: 10.111/j.1525-1497.2005.0243.x.
23. Bollu PC, Kaur H. Sleep medicine: insomnia and sleep. Mo Med. 2019;116(1):68-75.
24. Asnis GM, Thomas M, Henderson MA. Pharmacotherapy treatment options for insomnia: a primer for clinicians. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;17(1). pii: E50. doi: 10.3390/ijms17010050.
25. Brett J, Murnion B. Management of benzodiazepine misuse and dependence. Aust Prescr. 2015;38(5):152-155. doi: 10.18773/austprescr.2015.055.
26. Tanzi MG. Beers revised: drugs not to use in older adults. American Pharmacists Association website. pharmacist.com/beers-revised-drugs-not-use-older-adults. Published November 1, 2012. Accessed December 28, 2019.
27. FDA requires strong warnings for opioid analgesics, prescription opioid cough products, and benzodiazepine labeling related to serious risks and death from combined use. FDA website. www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-requires-strong-warnings-opioid-analgesics-prescription-opioid-cough-products-and-benzodiazepine. Published August 31, 2016. Accessed February 19, 2020.
28. Sparks A, Cohen A, Albright B, et al. Benzodiazepine and Z-drug safety guideline. Kaiser Permanente Foundation website. wa.kaiserpermanente.org/static/pdf/public/guidelines/benzo-zdrug.pdf. Published January 2019. Accessed December 28, 2019.
29. Everitt H, Baldwin DS, Stuart B, et al. Antidepressants for insomnia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;5(5):CD010753. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD017053.pub2.
30. Katwala J, Kumar AK, Sejpal JJ, Terrence M, Mishra M. Therapeutic rationale for low dose doxepin in insomnia patients. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2013;3(4):331-336. doi: 10.1016/S2222-1808(13)60080-8.
31. Jaffer KY, Chang T, Vanle B, et al. Trazodone for insomnia: a systematic review. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2017;14(7-8):24-34.
32. Kukkonen JP, Leonard CS. Orexin/hypocretin receptor signalling cascades. Br J Pharmacol. 2014;171(2):314-331. doi: 10.1111/bph.12324.
33. Janto K, Prichard JR, Pusalavidyasagar S. An update on dual orexin receptor antagonists and their potential role in insomnia therapeutics. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018;14(8):1399-1408. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.7282.
34. Belsomra [prescribing information]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp; 2020. merck.com/product/usa/pi_circulars/b/belsomra/belsomra_pi.pdf. Accessed February 19, 2020.
35. FDA approves Dayvigo. Drugs.com website. drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-dayvigo-lemborexant-insomnia-adult-patients-5132.html. Published December 23, 2019. Accessed January 6, 2020.
36. Dayvigo [prescribing information]. Woodcliff Lake, NJ: Eisai Inc; 2019. accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2019/212028s000lbl.pdf. Accessed February 19, 2020.
37. Lemborexant. Drugs.com website. drugs.com/nda/lemborexant_190312.html. Published March 12, 2019. Accessed November 30, 2019.
38. Kärppä M, Moline M, Yardley J, et al. Lemborexant treatment for insomnia: 6-month safety. Sleep. 2019;42(suppl 1):A149-A150. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsz067.366.
39. Roth T, Rosenberg R, Murphy P, et al. Lemborexant treatment for insomnia in phase 3: impact on disease severity. Sleep. 2019;42(suppl 1):A151. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsz067.370.
40. Cheng J, Moline M, Filippov G, Murphy P, Bsharat M, Hall N. Respiratory safety of lemborexant in adult and elderly subjects with mild obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep. 2019;42(suppl 1):A173-A174. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsz067.428.
41. Phase 3 investigation of nemorexant for patients with insomnia. Idorsia website. idorsia.com/documents/com/fact-sheets-presentations/act-541468-webcast-presentation.pdf. Published June 2018. Accessed November 24, 2019.
42. Dauvilliers Y, Zammit G, Fietze I, et al. Daridorexant, a new dual orexin receptor antagonist to treat insomnia disorder. Ann Neurol. 2020;87(3):347-356. doi: 10.1002/ana.25680.
43. Recourt K, de Boer P, Zuiker R, et al. The selective orexin-2 antagonist seltorexant (JNJ-42847922/MIN-202) shows antidepressant and sleep-promoting effects in patients with major depressive disorder [published correction appears in Transl Psychiatry. 2019;9(1):240]. Transl Psychiatry. 2019;9(1):216. doi: 10.1038/s41398-019-0553-z.
44. Brooks S, Jacobs GE, de Boer P, et al. The selective orexin-2 receptor antagonist seltorexant improves sleep: an exploratory double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study in antidepressant-treated major depressive disorder patients with persistent insomnia. J Psychopharmacol. 2019;33(2):202-209. doi: 10.1177/0269881118822258.
45. De Boer P, Drevets WC, Rofael H, et al. A randomized phase 2 study to evaluate the orexin-2 receptor antagonist seltorexant in individuals with insomnia without psychiatric comorbidity. J Psychopharmacol. 2018;32(6):668-677. doi: 10.1177/0269881118773745.
46. Minerva Neurosciences announces achievement of primary and key secondary objectives in phase 2b clinical trial of seltorexant (MIN-202) in insomnia [news release]. Waltham, MA: Minerva Neurosciences; June 24, 2019. ir.minervaneurosciences.com/news-releases/news-release-details/minerva-neurosciences-announces-achievement-primary-and-key. Accessed November 24, 2019.
47. Maher RL, Hanlon J, Hajjar ER. Clinical consequences of polypharmacy in elderly. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2014;13(1):57-65. doi: 10.1517/14740338.2013.827660.
48. Chao YS, MacDougall D. Multidisciplinary Medication Review in Long-Term Care: A Review of Clinical Utility, Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines [internet]. Ottawa, ON, Canada: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health; 2019.